How to Overcome Overpopulation in Health

Flu or influenza is caused by a virus that has been given the name influenza virion, belonging to the Orthomyxoviridae family. Enclosed in an envelope of spherical structure, the outer layer of the virus is a lipid membrane. The virus obtains this membrane from the host cells and uses it for growth. The membrane comprises of spikes, formed from glycoproteins that are referred to as hemagglutinin or HA and neuraminidase or NA. It is these proteins that have led to different classes of the influenza virus: typically influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B and influenzavirus C. Just below the outer lipid membrane lies the viral or matrix protein, which is called M1. This protein forms a sort of shell and provides a rigid support to the membrane.

The three classes of influenza have more or less the same structure that has been described above. They have a diameter that is between 80 and 12 nanometers. Their shapes are spherical, but influenza C also exists in the form of cordlike structures.

Effects on Health
Influenza can have adverse effects on health that start with a flu and progress onto diseases as serious as pneumonia and bronchitis. The initial symptoms are very similar to the common cold such as runny nose and sneezing. These are accompanied with fever, aching muscles, headaches and fatigues.

Though influenza can develop in anyone, there are factors in which the chances of infection are more. For instance, young children and people above 65 are more prone to suffering from influenza. Living condition also play an active role in this, and if an individual lives among many people, he is more likely to develop influenza.

The most effective ways to treat influenza are antiviral medications.

Influenza virus is easily transmissible through air via sneezes and coughs. When a person infected with influenza coughs or sneezes, he emits droplets in the air that contain his infected saliva. These droplets create aerosols that contain the virus and lead to its spread. Other than this, nasal secretions and bird droppings can also help in the transmission.

The main key to preventing influenza is to preventing the virus. Soap can do this, so regular hand washing is required. Wash your hands thoroughly for almost 15 seconds, and use a hand sanitizer when you are done. Sunlight can also play a role in preventung the virus, and decreasing infection risk. If you stay away from crowds, there is a lesser chance you The idea of a medical dictionary may seem somewhat out of date or even old-fashioned in today's world, but there was a time not that long ago when people would instantly rush to any type of medical dictionary when they felt there was something wrong with them.

People would scour through the pages of these books looking for symptoms, causes, remedies and all types of information on what they believed was wrong with them. These types of dictionaries, although not widely accessible were common enough for many people to be able to get hold of them and use them as a precursor of self-help medical websites.

Unquestionably medical dictionaries do have a value, whether they appear in printed form or on-line, but as with many things it is how they are used and by whom that is the most important thing.The advent of the internet brought with it a burgeoning supply of health-related websites, many of them quite accurate and quite helpful, and a number of them very inaccurate and decidedly unhelpful.

Being able to differentiate between what is a helpful and unhelpful health website is a very difficult process at times but one that has become increasingly important to do. When these health websites started appearing, there were numerous anecdotal instances related of patients turning up at their doctors surgeries armed with printouts of web pages that would tell the doctor exactly what was wrong with their patient and what needed to be done about it.

Many medical professionals became quite defensive about the use of health websites on-line, a trend that thankfully has now pretty much disappeared. There seems to be a growing awareness by people of how to use these on-line medical dictionaries with some degree of caution and discretion. The need to take responsibility for one's health becomes more and more relevant in today's world, given the high cost of health insurance and related problems that result from limited benefits and tightly controlled in and out networks of health care providers.

Individuals have to take responsibility for their health and are increasingly reliant on information provided on-line by health-related websites. The obvious danger of a health-related website is in part whether or not information that it provides is accurate or not, and in part about how that information is used.

Perhaps the best source of websites that are relevant to a health issue tend to come from the effective self-help groups and group forums that relate to a particular health condition or illness. Anyone who lives with a particular type of illness or disease tends to have a better understanding of it in a felt sense and many other people, and as such can often give best guidance as to where people can do to learn about it. Do you remember the last time when you were sick? You surely do not recall that time. Well, if you had been still sick, you would have been praying to God for good health. No doubt, we feel that it is necessary to take precautions before a small ailment becomes serious. Such is the importance of health in our lives. Often, unexpected events or incidents pose a threat to the health of a person. In such a situation, one cannot avoid going to the hospital. However, what about the remote areas where one cannot access hospitals or any kind of healthcare service? In this situation, a medical call center is the only one that can offer timely help to the people in need. We cannot deny the fact that a well-timed call for these services can save the life of a person. This is the reason one needs to be aware of the medical facilities available to him in his neighborhood.

Call center services changed the business models of organizations across the world. The services of a contact center are not confined or limited to a particular domain or industry. These unique and useful services have surpassed the boundaries of industry and nations. Not only do the services of a top contact center provide you with best-in-class customer care services, but also add to the overall efficiency of your business. However, when we talk about medical aid, it goes without saying that round-the-clock assistance is mandatory. A medical practitioner can achieve high service levels by utilizing a pharmaceutical call center.

All of us understand that spending quality time with his patients is the inherent desire of a medical practitioner. However, many physicians are associated with more than one medical service provider. Consequently, they are overburdened with a lot of responsibilities. In such a situation, medical answering services can be deployed to answer the calls of patients.

Call centers engaged in providing medical services allow a doctor to focus on his patients. He no longer needs to worry about attending the calls of his patients. In addition, the customer service representatives at these call centers are trained and qualified medical professionals who make sure that the issue of every patient is addressed in a timely manner. Moreover, they also provide the details of the patients to the medical practitioner. This allows the practitioner to plan further course of treatment. Besides all this, contact center services can also help physicians with tasks such as making confirmation calls and verifying the time of a patient's appointment. In this way, the work of a physician is reduced to a large extent.

Health is the most important element in the life of a human being. We cannot enjoy anything in our lives if we are not healthy. This is the reason most hospitals opt for a hosted contact center of repute. It is understood that a call made to medical contact center has to be regarding a health issue. Therefore, customer service representatives need to be prompt and accurate in their actions. After all, you cannot keep a customer on hold if there is a medical emergency.

Alicia Gray is a qualified executive who started working for a medical call center after five years of practice in contact center. At present, she is associated with a company that provides contact center services to a variety of industries ranging from IT and insurance to consumer goods. Despite a hectic work schedule, she takes out time and writes articles on the trends and practices of call center industry. GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a condition in which the contents of the stomach flow upwards into the esophagus. This disease can result in pain and discomfort in your intestinal parts. Many numbers of individuals suffer from the unusual burning discomfort in the stomach, esophagus, and chest (heartburn), which are usual signs and symptoms of this disease. Acid reflux disease could be induced because of pregnancy, morbid obesity as well as damage in the poor stomach functionality. Research experts have analyzed many people all over the world and so they found out that gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd)inhibits normal digestive functions.

Severe heartburn or acid reflux is regarded as among the most typical digestive illnesses worldwide. The Usa Department of Wellbeing and Human Service has gathered scientific proof that signifies that at least seven million people are afflicted with this condition in America alone. As time passes, the amount of individuals who suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disorder (Gerd) has dramatically boosted. Between the year '95-'09, the symptoms of gerd (Gastroesophageal) reflux disorderhave raised to thirty-nine%, whilst the incidence of extreme symptoms have risen by 24%. Furthermore, constant indications of acid reflux disorderhave risen by about 3%.

In nations where you can find poor diet and high-risk of malnutrition are the ones in danger from the symptoms of acid reflux. Cultures who indulge in poor ways of eating suffer from digestive illnesses more often than people who consume numerous vegetables as well as fruit, and also marine-based foods and crops which contain huge quantities of anti-oxidants and 100 % natural ingredients. According to a new international study, GERD is more widespread in America as compared to Europe and that is triggered by nutritional and lifestyle ways. Individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disorder (gerd) have very low percentage in the nations of Asia, Africa and China where people consume higher fibre diets, that make healthy and strong cells. The value of diet plan in preventing the signs and symptoms of acid reflux diseasehas been confirmed by many scientific research.

There are various characteristics and mechanisms which can be connected to the symptoms of acid reflux.. One of the most popular diseases that medical doctors treat is gastro-esophageal reflux illnesses. People who have gerdare usually more prone to develop many degenerative illnesses in the body. According to the medical study, 50 to 90 percent of severe heartburn or acid refluxsufferers are inclined to experiencing respiratory ailments, just like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Medical data support the development of therapeutic preventative methods for acid reflux disease.

For individuals suffering from acid reflux disease, 70% of them are acquiring respiratory illnesses because of the damage brought on on the stomach. Continuous damaged to the epithelium and esophagus block airflow and also right flow which results in acid reflux. Having poor diet, gastric acid can raise; this could cause indigestion and regurgitation, enabling the acidic materials of the stomach upward to the esophagus. Disturbances in biochemical functions of the stomach area make extreme heart burn in 60 % of gastroesophageal reflux disorder (gerd) patients. One of the desires many people have is to finally get their body into shape, to a point where they can feel comfortable going to the beach or hitting up the pool and strutting their stuff - knowing that people will look and be impressed, rather than assuming that people are looking and chuckling or turning away - and yet, this is also one of the most difficult things for many people to actually end up accomplishing; if you have a goal of getting strong, cut ab muscles (the sort of ab muscles that will cause people to ask you how the heck you reached that point!), you will need to make sure you are sticking to these three keys to building the ab muscles you want.

1) Remain consistent: a lot of people make the assumption that working out a ton each time they work out is one of the most important things they can do, but the truth is, it is far more important that you remain consistent in your workouts than it is that you are doing a ton whenever you do work out; if you are sticking to your ab workout routine every single day, this will bring you much greater results than you would get if you were simply working really hard a couple days a week.

2) Knowledge goes a long way: Doing the wrong workouts - or working out in the wrong manner - can double or even triple the amount of time it will take for you to achieve the results you desire; instead of simply trying to "buckle down and work out," take the time to first understand what should go into these workouts, and what you can do in order to really strengthen your ab muscles and get them looking the way you have wanted so long for them to look.

3) Lifestyle is vital: Plenty of people work out hard core, and still never find that they are able to achieve the results they want to achieve (or, for that matter, to come close at all to the results they are hoping for), and eventually they reach a place where they assume that they must be doing something wrong in their workouts, or - worse - that there must just be something wrong with their body that does not enable them to look the way they want to look; the truth, however, is that making sure you are eating healthy and making sure you are getting proper rest and sleep each day are just as important as making sure you are working out consistently and in the right manner.
Forgetfulness often disturbs our mind at one point of time or other. Information does not come to our mind when we want it badly. While we are doing certain task suddenly we remember that something we have to do in the kitchen. When we are in the kitchen we simply forget what we have to do and feel stupefied and helpless. While we have a saunter we come across a good friend but don't remember his name however hard we think. While we are writing an examination we just don't remember that one important point. The other day when I helped myself a cup of tea, I was stirring and stirring the tea for a while and realized that there was no sugar only after having the first sip. Last week I had to discuss with a friend whose office is at the 20th floor. After the discussion I left his office and had to use the stairs as the elevator was not working. On reaching the 1st floor I remembered I left my phone at the office and had to climb up all the 20 flights of the stairs. There are numerous examples of forgetfulness like these. Why do we forget? Can we avoid forgetfulness? Is forgetfulness an inherent weakness in the design of our mind?

Forgetfulness is often forgetting things which we should remember. In general, people forget more and more as time passes. We find it difficult to retrieve from our memory the name of an old friend whom we have not seen for long. If we meet a friend often we generally will not forget that friend's name. Each time we meet the friend the memory is reinforced. So something is happening in our brain when we see a person or a thing often. Repetition enables us to remember things for a longer or life time. While we have a saunter we come across so many people whom we forget quickly. The memory may last for only a few seconds. It seems brain deletes information which is not important and stores information which is important. How does the brain know that? We will have to inform the brain. How do we inform the brain? We have to actively think about the information in order to store it in our brain. The more we actively think about it the more it lasts in our memory. What if we want to forget a person or an event? It is equivalent to thinking actively about a person or an event. Therefore, we will never be able to forget that person or event. It seems we have to actively think about other persons or events so that in due course we might forget what we consider not important. So far we have found two reasons for forgetfulness. One reason is that we don't give importance. The second reason is that we don't actively think about the thing we want to remember (the second follows from the first). Sometimes we forget things even though we give importance to and actively think about them. Consider the example of writing an examination. Why do we forget that one important point?

Writing an examination requires long term memory. It involves a huge amount of information, some of which lasts a lifetime. Information enters long term memory as a result of either of two factors: (1) repetition or (2) intense emotion. We do several readings before the examination in order to remember the maximum number of points. Yet, we forget that one important point. Scientists know little about what happens in the brain when it stores memories. However, storing new memories seems to involve both chemical changes in the nerve cells of the brain and changes in their physical structure. Research indicates that these chemical and physical changes occur in a tiny section of the brain called the hippocampus when a person stores new memories. The hippocampus is part of a larger structure called the cerebral cortex, which controls many higher brain functions. When we learn one material and move on to learn another material, the first learned material may initially block the learning of the second material. Once we think actively and learned the second material it may block the remembering of the previously learned material. Scientists call this phenomenon as interference. When the previously learned material hampers the remembering of new material, the hampering process is called proactive interference or proactive inhibition. Likewise, when the learning of new material hampers the remembering of the previously learned material the hampering process is called retroactive interference or retroactive inhibition. Sometimes, you may be able to remember effortlessly that one important point after the examination is over. Such temporary loss of memory, which occurs frequently, is called retrieval failure. Memory experts believe that people can, with practice, increase their ability to remember. One of the most important means of improving memory is the use of mental aids called mnemonic devices. They are memory aids that include rhymes, clues, mental pictures, and other methods. To use mnemonic devices, you must first learn them and often invent them. After learning a mnemonic device, however, you can use it at any time you wish.

Our brain is capable of executing a procedure without our conscious or active involvement. If you drive your car in a particular route everyday then you know effortlessly when to take left and when to take right. Similarly, making a cup of tea is a standard procedure which we do it every day. But when you change the sequence of activities then you have to relearn the new procedure. Until you master the new procedure the previous procedure will interfere with the new one. That is why I was stirring and stirring the tea thinking that I had already put the sugar. I call this phenomenon phantom execution: it is a situation in that the execution of an activity happens only in the mind of the executor and the feeling of the executor that the work has actually been done. Many people experience phantom execution not only in domestic works but also in corporate works. In corporate world, this phenomenon calls for interlocking system where manual work or both manual and machine works are involved. Why does our brain switch over to automatic mode when we execute a routine work? It could be our brain's efficiency of optimum use of energy and its ability to perform multiple tasking.

Consider the example of my kitchen discomfiture. It seems our brain is capable of alarming us to execute a to-do-list of activities. It means our brain has an internal clock work system. We know little about how far this internal clock work system synchronizes with the actual clock time. The flash in my mind that I had to perform a certain task in the kitchen while I was doing some other work is the proof that the brain is capable of alarming us. At what time the alarm comes to our mind needs an internal clock work system. Why didn't the alarm remind me once I was in the kitchen even though I tried so hard? Is that my brain was still actively involved in my previous work and the previous material was hampering my new work (proactive inhibition)? Or, is that the brain does not remind you twice? I think the brain is not so harsh on us. The reason should most probably be proactive inhibition. Cognitive load must have messed up with the internal alarm system of the brain.

The amount of information entering our consciousness at any instant is referred to as our cognitive load. When our cognitive load exceeds the capacity of our working memory, our intellectual abilities take a hit. Information zips into and out of our mind so quickly that we never gain a good mental grip on it (Nicholas Carr, on Cognitive load in 'This Will Make You Smarter,' 2012).

Working memory is what brain scientists call the short-term store of information where we hold the contents of our consciousness at any moment. They also believe that the storing capacity of working memory area is finite and limited. In the 1950s, Princeton psychologist George Miller famously argued that our brains can hold only about seven pieces of information simultaneously. Some brain researchers now believe that working memory has a maximum capacity of just three or four elements.

The brain's many structures are networks of neurons. Each structure makes connections with other brain structures. Information flow back and forth through the connections and allow brain structures to work together to create sophisticated perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors. The human brain has about 100 billion neurons. Each neuron consists of a cell body and a number of tubes like fibers. The longest fiber, called the axon, carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons. Short, branching fibers called dendrites pick up impulses from the axons of other neurons and transmit them to the cell body. The point where any branch of one neuron transmits a nerve impulse to a branch of another neuron is called a synapse. Each neuron may form synapses with thousands of other nerve cells. This system implies the flow of information is unidirectional. Some axons have a coating of fatty material called myelin. The myelin insulates the fiber and speeds the transmission of impulses along its surface. Myelin is white, and tightly packed axons covered with it form white matter. The neuron cell bodies and the axons without myelin sheaths make up the grey matter of the brain. The cerebral cortex is made up of grey matter, and most of the rest of the cerebrum consists of white matter.

The cerebrum makes up about 85 per cent of the weight of the human brain. A thin layer of nerve cell bodies called the cerebral cortex or cortex forms the outermost part of the cerebrum. Most of the cerebrum beneath the cortex consists of nerve cell fibers. Some of these fibers connect parts of the cortex. Others link the cortex with the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. A fissure divides the cerebrum into halves called the left cerebral hemisphere and the right cerebral hemisphere. The hemispheres are connected by bunches of nerve fibers, the largest of which is the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere, in turn, is divided into four lobes. They are (1) the frontal lobe; (2) the temporal lobe, at the lower side; (3) the parietal lobe, in the middle; and (4) the occipital lobe, at the rear. These lobes have distinct domains of functioning, although in practice there is a great deal of interaction between them.

Broadly speaking, the occipital lobes are mainly concerned with visual processing. In fact, they are subdivided into as many as thirty distinct processing regions; each partially specialized for a different aspect of vision such as color, motion, and form.

The temporal lobes are specialized for higher perceptual functions, such as recognizing faces and other objects and linking them to appropriate emotions. They do this latter job in close cooperation with a structure called the amygdale, which lies in the front ties of the temporal lobes. Also tucked away beneath each temporal lobe is the hippocampus, which lays down new memory traces. In addition to all this, the upper part of the left temporal lobe contains a patch of cortex known as Wernicke's area. In humans this area has ballooned to seven times the size of the same area in chimpanzees; it is one of the few brain areas that can be safely declared unique to our species. Its job is nothing less than the comprehension of meaning and semantic aspects of language - functions that are prime differentiators between human beings and mere apes.

The parietal lobes are primarily involved in processing touch, muscle, and joint information from the body and combining it with vision, hearing, and balance to give you a rich 'multimedia' understanding of your corporeal self and world around it. The parietal lobes have expanded greatly in human evolution, but no part of them has grown more than the inferior parietal lobules. So great was the expansion that at some point in our past a large portion of it split into two new processing regions called the angular gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus. These uniquely human areas house some truly quintessential human abilities. The left angular gyrus is involved in important functions unique to humans such as arithmetic, abstraction, and aspects of language such as word finding and metaphor. The left supramarginal gyrus, on the other hand, conjures up a vivid image of intended skilled actions - for example, sewing with a needle, hammering a nail, or waving goodbye - and executes them.

The frontal lobes also perform several distinct and vital functions. Part of this region the motor cortex is involved in issuing simple motor commands. Other parts are involved in planning actions and keeping goals in mind long enough to follow through on them. There is another small part of the frontal lobe that is required for holding things in memory long enough to know what to attend to. This faculty is called working memory or short-term memory.

Therefore, we can infer that certain parts of the frontal lobes are involved in the to-do-list of activities. The alarm system must have signaled the frontal lobes at appropriate time for an appropriate action (kitchen example). The appropriate action is sent to the working memory area for processing the information; the information is either a visual or verbal image. As I have already been involved in another task, the working memory area is fully loaded with information. The working memory area (WMA) now has to accommodate the alarm information which is urgent in nature. The WMA either has to delete certain existing information or has some extra space to accommodate information for urgent work, as WMA can hold only limited number of information. There is a possibility that the alarm information and the already existing information in the WMA must have been messed up and a partial message is processed which is enough to urge me to go to the kitchen. While in the kitchen the WMA is still fully engaged in the other activity and the alarm information is deleted from the memory. Normally one image will trigger another image and the second image will trigger a third image and so on until the brain groups all these images into meaningful information. In the kitchen case, the first image could not trigger a second image and I stood baffled. So, what is the solution? It is better to sit down in the kitchen (it is easier to bring back the kitchen information in the kitchen itself) and disengage all the activities. Think one by one the activities you do in the kitchen. Probably, within minutes, you will be able to recollect the information you temporarily lost.

The causes for forgetfulness are many and they depend upon the situation. The reason for not remembering the name of an old friend is we didn't assign importance to that person and therefore haven't actively thought about that person for long. The reason for climbing up all 20 flights of the stairs to pick my phone is procedural lapse. We leave our cell phones wherever we go. If we keep the phone at a particular place we will always remember where it will be found. Otherwise, our brain will have to process all the spots chronologically to find finally where we left the phone. The brain will be wasting a lot of energy doing that complicated process. When you go out, remember the things you carry and actively think where you keep those things so that you can always get your things back. After visiting a place, check whether you have all the things you carried with you before leaving that place. You can save a lot of energy and time! The reason for forgetting that one important point in the examination is retrieval failure. You can use some mnemonic devices such as rhyme, acronym, or something which you can invent yourself. First memorize the mnemonic device then associate all the points to the device and then repeat the second process several times till you master it. The reason for not remembering what you have to do in the kitchen is cognitive load. You just sit down, disengage all thoughts in your mind, and actively think about all the activities you do in the kitchen. You will retrieve the information you wanted.

Our brain is evolving and will continue to evolve in the future. That is why our brain has certain unique features which the other organisms do not have. Our brain has certain limitations also. Our eyes are not telescopic; we are not good at echolocation as bats are; our smell organ is not as good as a dog's. On several accounts we are weaker than many other organisms. Our weaknesses are sometimes blissful or rather that is what we desired. If our eyes are microscopic we will not be able to eat food and if our eyes are telescopic we will never have privacy. Similarly, forgetfulness is sometimes good and sometimes bad. It is part of the game of life. Perhaps, in the future we may see things which are far away. But we do not know how our brain will find the way. It could be the telescopic eyes or the astral projection. If evolution has to go at faster pace, I think, we have to change our attitudes. Only evolution can tell us the truth. While we live with our inherent weaknesses, we can use our brain and solve our human-made weaknesses.
Wales, a popular destination in the British education industry is also the mother of the first ever Britain University, that was conceived by St. Illtud in the 6th century on the coast of Vale of Glamorgan in South Wales. Inheriting one of the finest universities, Wales offers world-class education and placements all across the globe. Apart from just being a renowned name there are various other reasons why most of Indian students aspire to study in Wales. Here are they-

#1 Wide range of Excellent courses-

Apart from pursuing programs, studying in any university of Wales provides you with numerous career options especially, for those looking for diversified courses in any and every field. Along with excellent career options in multiple fields, Wales is also renowned for its language, history, exquisite landscape and science innovation that make the study experience all the more exciting and rewarding.

#2 Diversified crowd from all across the globe-

More than 11000 thousand students enroll themselves for higher education in Wales out of which more than 1100 students are from abroad and 2000 from India. Having once in a lifetime experience and getting globally connected at one place is another reason why maximum students from Asia and UAE and other parts of the world look for higher education options in Wales. These statistics not only provide information on Wales popularity in terms of pursuing higher education abroad but also give a clear picture about why international students prefer Wales to other higher study destinations.

#3 World's Education Hub-

There are more than 11 universities offering higher education in Wales along with 30 centers of excellence, 91+ departments acquiring 4 star in research and 66 departments rewarded for best teaching quality.

#4 Treasured Experience and Incalculable Confidence-

Studying in Wales does not only offer you the finest education but also evangelize you in a refined human being. Interacting with people from all around the world makes you informed and the increased communication incorporates a lot of confidence and interpersonal skills in every individual. Having a practice of studying with all kinds of people from the planet gives impeccable experience for a lifetime that brings the introvert out of you and ripe you for the future challenges of life.

#5 Enhanced quality of Life and Respect-

Every aspirant who wants to study in Wales knows that welsh education is globally recognized by the employers and various academic institutions. Having said that, surveys have showcased that the students passed from any of the Wales university enjoy a better quality of life and respect than any other parts of UK which clearly shows how Wales universities counterparts all other UK universities.

However, on the contrary the expenses of higher education abroad is another major concern for most Indian students. Therefore, having a sound back up before aspiring to study in Wales is a crucial element for every student. Perhaps, the incalculable experience and opportunities that come your way after getting a certification from a renowned Wales university is incomparable and makes a once in a lifetime opportunity.

With a keen eye on Indian as well as global education scenarios, Ishani Yadav has been penning her own insights into industry with an underline on education in abroad niche. Here comes an article authored by her where she throws some light on how study in Wales is a world class experience.
We are starting to hear more and more concerns about climate change. There are calls to try to limit carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels and even the need to manage climate change when it happens. But I propose that climate change science is very uncertain. The earth's climate is constantly changing between hot ages and ice ages. However the extent to which it is occurring is very much linked to population growth. Rather than get bogged down in arguments about climate change I want to examine something that is undeniable; Overpopulation. Time is running out. The most fundamental problem facing the world today is overpopulation leading to pollution and degradation of the earth's environment on a massive scale.

There are a number of critical reasons why our leaders are not prepared to tackle overpopulation and even if they want to, it all seems too hard to solve. To understand how we got to this situation, I would like to take a brief look at history then consider what is stopping us from really doing something practical about it. If we don't the alternative will be catastrophic, as nature will decide the issue for us the hard way, most likely through droughts, floods and famines.

So let's go back to very early times when tribes of hunters and gatherers roamed the world. The furthest we can go back and understand how our ancestors really lived with any degree of certainty is probably around 50,000 years. In the case of Australian Aborigines and other hunters and gatherers around the world, it is thought their customs and beliefs changed little over time, so a lot of information has been collected about their lifestyles and spiritual beliefs. For instance it is known that the Australian Aborigines have always been a highly spiritual people with an extremely strong affinity to the land and animals they needed for food. They managed the land through the use of fire to encourage new growth of plants and trees, so the animals they hunted could thrive. When burning off they even left pathways so the animals could move away from the fire.

Being excellent bushmen they usually spent part of each day hunting and gathering which left plenty of time for their rituals, dancing and story telling about the 'dreamtime'. They were very much into sharing food within each tribe. For example, if one member caught a kangaroo one day another might catch one the next day. So sharing was very important for survival. It seems they were content with their lot and didn't need to develop their "economic system" further in terms of crops and farming. Nor did they see any need for permanent homes (apart from the use of caves) or the need to create stone monuments to honour their spirits.

Thus, theirs was a simple life lived in harmony with the land and nature. When the first white settlers arrived in Australia there was no pollution and if left alone it is likely the Aborigines could have carried on with their lifestyle for many more thousands of years. I have used the Australian Aborigines as one example. Similarly hunters and gatherers in many other parts of the world carried on for thousands of years in harmony with their environments had they not met with what we call civilization.

This is extremely important because we have to ask if the modern civilized, industrialized world, can carry on for thousands of years into the future the way we are going at present with overpopulation, pollution and degradation of environments around the world?

So from the ancient tribes people living in harmony with their environment I want to briefly examine how we got to where we are in today's modern world and what we must do to survive with an acceptable lifestyle in the future

Overpopulation that has led to pollution and degradation of the environment is a direct result of The Industrial Revolution. This is generally considered to have begun in England around 1750 and quickly spread around the rest of the world. For the first time in human history factories were able to manufacture mass-produced goods and people started to have a standard of living that could not have been previously imagined. Unfortunately the factories created three things; a mass movement of people to the cities, an explosion in population growth and pollution on a scale never seen before. This has expanded and continued growing rapidly to the present day.

But I would like to go back before the Industrial Revolution (from here on the IR) and consider why this huge change in human activity occurred at this time and why it had never before happened in human history.

Why do I want to consider this? Because I propose that the very thinking that helped create the IR is what is again needed today to tackle overpopulation. So what was this thinking that led to the IR and why did it never happen before in history?

To do this I would like to look at ancient Egypt, then ancient Greece then medieval England and Europe.

Having abundant harvests due to the Nile River flooding and fertilizing their crops, the Ancient Egyptians were able to gain freedom from full time farming and develop a vibrant culture that still fascinates scholars today. But they needed protection from marauding tribes, which required warlords. Over time these warlords were able to convince the people they were 'god kings' or Pharaohs, a type of living deity on earth. The Egyptians achieved marvelous things under these Pharaohs including building great cities and of course the pyramids. In reality with our modern technology however today these could easily be replicated. The important point however is that the Egyptians were not encouraged to think for themselves. They were required to obey the Pharaohs and the priests who told the people what to think. Thus they were never able to create an IR due to the control of the 'god kings'.

So Egypt remained an agriculture based economy and their population grew only slowly. It is thought to have only grown from around one million to perhaps 4-5million over the entire 3000 year period of the Empire.

Next let's look at ancient Greece, which is regarded as the birthplace of Western Philosophy. Ancient Greece had a type of democracy although it was very hierarchical and they also had slaves with few rights. However it spawned some great thinkers, particularly Socrates and his pupil Plato. Socrates argued, "Few climb out of the cave of ignorance and are ridiculed if they try to help others out." He was concerned with 'Justice' and questioning everyone and everything. Unlike the Egyptians his thinking was not controlled by Pharaohs however, when he criticized what Athens was doing and extolled the virtues of one of their enemies, the elected State Officials did not tolerate him. He was tried for treason and executed. So just as there was no free thinking under the Pharaohs there was no place for free thinking under the elected State in ancient Greece and hence no IR.

Again their economy remained agriculture based and the population of ancient Greece grew only slowly. In fact may have only been around 350,000 people.

Finally, medieval England and Europe where the Church and the Kings working together controlled the people. Unlike the Pharaohs who claimed to be divine the churches claimed to have the only true access to the word of God through the Bible and other religious texts. Again the people were told what to think and although there were advances in weaponry, mathematics and literature, the people had to obey rather than think for themselves. Thus the economies of the time remained largely based on agriculture and again population grew slowly.

However, in the 1600's after the devastating 30-year war that engulfed most of Europe, something happened that had never occurred before in human history. Centuries of mistreatment at the hands of monarchies and the church finally brought a reaction from the people and the most intelligent and vocal decided to speak out and abandon the old 'truths' that had been thrust upon them. One example of this was the strongly held belief by the churches that 'the sun revolved around the earth.' This was disproved by Galilee, who like Socrates was punished for his trouble, although he was put under house arrest rather than being executed.

The new movement has been called 'The Age of Enlightenment'. One of the great leaders of this new movement was René Descartes who gave us the brilliant saying:

'I think therefore I am'.

It may be hard to believe that what on the surface appears to be a simple statement, questioning whether we exist or not, actually paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. It in effect says, 'My mind exists and I can think for myself, (without the church, state or monarchy telling me how to think). I have freedom of thought, I can reason things out for myself'. This shifted the concept of 'What is the Truth,' onto the judgment of the individual. Rather than be told what to think by religious authorities claiming to know what God wants us to think, the responsibility was now put with the individual, 'I am, and no one will control how I think'.

Finally the shackles of the god kings, authoritative state powers, monarchs and the churches, telling people what to think throughout the centuries, had been thrown off. For the first time in history people started to think freely for themselves. This along with democracy paved the way for mans greatest invention, the Industrial Revolution.

Look around you; nearly everything in your home is the result of the IR. It has given us wonderful technology that is still ongoing today. However, on the other hand the world is about to face the downside of this, our greatest invention.

Apart from the comforts for everyday living the IR has resulted in huge breakthroughs in medicine and medical care. In particular antibiotics and well meaning programs in Africa and other developing countries have caused a population explosion. Before this, even in Western societies, people had very large families, as due to high infant mortality rates only a few children made it through to adulthood. Thus out of 10 children only two might have made it into adulthood. Nowadays with better medicine including antibiotics and vaccination programs, most children not only make it through into adulthood, but are also living into old age. However in the developing world people are still having large families and know little about contraception.

Thus we have a population explosion. In 1750 at the start of the IR the world's population is estimated to have been around 1 billion people and had been at that level for many centuries. In a little over 250 years since the start of the IR the world's population has grown to over 7 billion today and is likely to reach over 9 billion in the next 50 years. Recent studies by the United Nations claim some 850 million people are malnourished or starving and over 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water.

A graph of population growth looks like an "L" backwards with population growing very slowly over the centuries then suddenly taking off around 1750 with the Industrial Revolution.

Not only is the earth overpopulated with pollution from developed countries but also with the recent industrialization of China and India (with Africa likely to follow in the future), we are creating pollution on a scale never seen before.

The results of this are more than evident through environmental degradation. We are faced with:

- Heavily polluted cities
- Deforestation around the world
- Deserts expanding and more frequent droughts
- The greatest extinction of animal species since the dinosaurs
- Recurring famines and suffering in Africa and other developing nations
- Over fishing and depletion of fishing grounds around the world
- Coral bleaching due to run off from rivers from farming

The two main sources that account for nearly 80% of air pollution around the world are; industry 52% and transportation 27%. It has been estimated that electricity generation from coal fired power stations accounts for around 40% of all air pollution. Wind power and other non-polluting power sources are mostly inefficient and costly. We need to re-look at modern nuclear power options but with public paranoia about it, a whole paper could be written on this topic.

So what can be done about the fundamental cause of environmental degradation; overpopulation?

Unfortunately nothing much is being done to stop overpopulation. Many programs were tried in India in the 1960's and 1970's but failed due to cultural problems and women's rights movements. These have been largely abandoned. In China the authorities claim the one child policy has prevented up to 400 million births but independent studies claim the figure is more like 100 million. In any case this policy would not work in a democracy like India.

We think we live in a free world but are we really free to think like Descartes did in the 1600's? Isn't it time to once again throw off the restrictions on our thinking being imposed from many powerful sources and again start to think for ourselves?

So what are we up against?

For a start there is a massive need for education to overcome entrenched beliefs and ignorance in both the developing and developed worlds. Some of the main ones are:

Religious Organizations- Entrenched Beliefs

Oppose contraception.
Oppose the night after pill.
Oppose abortion including early pregnancy abortion.
Preach that God will provide. Believers must abstain from sex or only use the Rhythm method.

At the very least religious organizations need to be made to stop their opposition to contraception. Where in the religious texts does it say, Thou shall not use contraception?

Developing Countries -Education needs:

Need education not to have large families any more.
Need to be made aware they can use contraception.
Need training in what is available and how to use contraception.
Need access to cheap contraception particularly condoms and also IUD's.

Overall they need education and access to cheap contraception particularly condoms which also help to stop the spread of AIDS.

Politicians- Lack of Interest

Want continued economic and jobs growth, which requires population growth.
Don't see any votes in measures to stem population growth.
Don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth (see later).

Public pressure is needed to put population and environmental concerns as the top priority and that zero population and economic growth is desirable.

Companies - Profits come First

Want growing markets and growing populations to sell more and more products.
Want to be allowed to pollute and destroy the natural environment in order to maximize profits.

They need to be encouraged to become good corporate citizens by minimizing pollution and producing durable products that last.

Developed Countries - Apathy, Fear and the Consumer Society

The general public don't see overpopulation as a major concern and anyway nothing much can be done.
There is fear and opposition to nuclear power for electricity generation.
They don't understand the concept of zero population and economic growth.
They have been 'brainwashed' into thinking that to make them happy, they need more and more consumer goods and the latest models/fashions.

Overall the general public needs to be 'deprogrammed' from the consumer society to know something can be done about population growth and not to fear nuclear power.

Zero Population and Economic Growth:

If we can manage to slow population growth we need to think of the economic consequences. In the future we will need to make quality products that last for as many years as possible rather than 'consumer society products', that look good but only last a short time. Many, if not most products made today, actually have planned obsolescence built in. With slow to zero population growth, not only will producing products that last for many years, stop the wasteful use of the earth's resources, it will be vital, to create employment to maintain and repair these products over many years. So rather than build more and more factories that employ less and less people per factory, if we make products that last a long time, we will create employment that will be needed for repairs and maintenance for these long lasting products. This is probably the only way we can have sustainable slow to zero population and economic growth; producing quality that lasts.

The significance of this cannot be overstated. On the one hand the whole of the western world is geared towards the consumer society and obsolescence of consumer goods and the need to have the latest fashions. On the other hand religious organizations and other groups with vested interests, are totally opposed to birth control necessary to stem population growth.

The list is long and entrenched attitudes will not easily be overcome. Modern humans have been on the Earth some 200,000 years and have so far survived. We have been given the powers of reason and the ability to understand the consequences of our actions. However our modern society is not in harmony with nature and we have overpopulated our planet. Is it not time to arise out of the cave of ignorance and to again start to think for ourselves? We need to get overpopulation and climate change at the top of the agenda. The medium to do this also now exists; the internet.

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